Unfortunately, enzymes do not “renature” once they have been heated to the point of thermal inactivation and later cooled. Enzyme denaturation can be likened to cooking an egg, since egg whites and
The direct answer to this question is no. Hops do not need to be figured into the water-to-malt calculus. This ratio is used to determine strike water temperature and has a real
Paul, the direct answer to your question is “no”; using 200 °F (93 °F) water to heat wort with a copper coil heat exchanger is not going to hurt your efficiency. The important
When you want to brew a sour beer but don’t want to wait months to drink it, try kettle souring.