Topic: Brewing Science

How Water Minerals Change Through Brewing

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Much is made about water profiles during the brewing process, but what impact does brewing have on mineral content, and how do different ingredients and techniques affect these levels by the time fermentation is complete?

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Low-Dissolved Oxygen Lagers

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“I don’t know if it is a general problem to comprehend or follow instructions properly but hopefully others can break out of these habits and actually give [low dissolved oxygen brewing] a

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Acid Tolerance of Brewer’s Yeast

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In the last 15 years, American sour beer has grown from experiments tucked away in the sheds or corners of a handful of breweries, to dedicated producers and year-round offerings from the

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Steeping & Soaking Grains

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Steeping is the soaking of specialty malts, grains, and spices in water to extract flavors and aromas that we want to incorporate into our beer. It is, in essence, the making of


Evaluating Hop Oil Content

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There are no “Cascade” or “Saaz” aroma molecules, rather the relative proportions of hop oils drive their aroma contributions. The same four oils constitute 60-90% of the essential oils in every hop variety.

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Understanding Beer Spoilage

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Microorganisms can cause undesirable effects on beer in several ways, including undesirable changes in beer flavor and aroma. Growth of microorganisms on raw materials or in wort can produce changes that alter

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Maximize Your Mash: Understanding Impact of Equipment & Temperature

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There is an old saying that brewers make wort but yeast make beer. It is hard to argue against that fact, but the wort we feed the yeast will determine the final

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The Chemistry of Beer Flavor

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Beer is comprised of hundreds of different chemical compounds that contribute to the overall flavor and aroma perception of the beer. Different styles of beer have different flavor and aroma characteristics that

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Theory and Practice of Lautering

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Lautering is the act of separating sweet wort from spent grains. The act of lautering wort is physically very similar to filtration. The flow of wort through a grain bed can be

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Milling — Theory and Practical Consideration

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An all-grain brew day starts with heating the water and milling the grain. Learn the best ways to mill your malt.

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Preventing Diacetyl

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Vicinal diketones (VDKs) are the products of normal beer fermentation within a brewery. The two VDKs that are of primary concern to brewers are 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) and 2,3-pentanedione. Diacetyl in a finished

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Understanding Yeast Metabolism

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Yeast are microscopic, unicellular fungi that are capable of converting various types of sugar into ethanol and other byproducts. Yeast take in sugars and anaerobically (without oxygen) metabolize them to produce energy,

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