Topic: Mr Wizard

Mr. Wizard’s Musings – Disseminating the latest hop research

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I annually attend several brewing meetings and every so often I see or hear something that really gets me thinking. And I like to write about these topics to give fellow brewers

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Making Kettle Sours

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It took a while for brewers outside of the small sour brewing centers of Belgium and Germany to produce excellent sours because so much of the science and practice of sour beer

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Troubleshooting Chart

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Key: “X”: For beers made with malt extract, “AG”: For all-grain beers Problem Causes Fermentation does not start Inadequate amount of yeast pitched Wort too hot (yeast stunned/killed) Wort too cold (yeast


Converting starches

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One of the most important aspects of measuring anything is to understand what is being measured and how the measuring device works. The iodine test indicates the interaction between iodine and the


How long to secondary ferment

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  Many beers, especially big beers such as imperial stouts, mellow with extended aging in the secondary fermenter. It is usually best to place the secondary in a cool place for extended


Bottling Temperature

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If this beer was properly fermented, it should have been completely fermented before you chilled it. The most reliable method to know whether a fermentation is done is to compare the specific

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Brewing Pale Ales

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  Unfortunately I don’t have much information to digest from your question. All I know is that you have no luck brewing pale ales and I seem to be your last resort.

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Higher Alcohols

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Before you dump your mead down the drain, please read my answer! The aroma you describe is the distinctive scent of ethyl acetate. This nail-polish smelling compound is the most common acetate

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Bottle Bombs

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This question has a rather short, but important answer. Most breweries in the United States use “one-way” glass bottles for packaging. These bottles are lighter in weight compared to returnable bottles and are not intended

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Bottle Conditioning Lagers

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Since you are new to brewing lagers, I would focus 100% of my attention to primary fermentation and how the yeast behaves when fermented at cooler temperatures. Ale brewers are accustomed to

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Outdoor refrigeration

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The refrigeration cycle is pretty nifty and its development began in the late 1700s. The earliest use of commercial refrigeration occurred sometime in the mid 1800s by, you guessed it, breweries. The

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Ramping Up to a Boil

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n a very general sense the time required to bring wort to a boil can cause problems when the time is too long. Holding hot wort for extended time periods leads to

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