Mr. Wizard

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Appropriate Carbonation Levels

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In the United States, carbonation level is expressed in volumes of carbon dioxide. A volume of carbon dioxide is defined as the volume of gas that could be removed from a volume


Strong Chemical Taste in Kegged Beer

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Chemical off-flavors are frequently encountered in beer and can be caused by numerous factors. The most obvious cause comes from traces of cleaning or sanitizing chemicals left on equipment surfaces after use. Chemicals containing chlorine and iodine are well known contributors of chemical off-flavors if the compounds remain on the equipment. Of the two, chlorine

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Removing Soda Flavor from a Keg

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Ahhh, the old root-beer beer. This reminds me of a time when I screwed up a beer experiment with the remnants of a root beer experiment. We had three groups in our brewing lab class and each group would brew a beer that had one ingredient or process step changed. The results were assessed both

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Are Bottles or Kegs better for long term beer storage?

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So how do bottles differ from kegs? If bottled properly, they really should have similar storage properties. The big difference with bottling a five-gallon batch versus kegging a five-gallon batch is roughly


Temperatures affects on beer stored in kegs

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The answer to this question has plagued brewers since beer was first conceived or however it came into being. Many famous scientists studied the spoilage of beer and wine, and Louis Pasteur developed the heat-preservation technique now called pasteurization for beer, not milk. If brewers only knew how long their beer would last after packaging,

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Minimizing Hop Sludge

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Copious volumes of hop sludge are a real problem for brewers who are in pursuit of hugely hopped beers because this sludge represents wort loss and batch size contraction. The net result is the inefficient use of ingredients and the reduction of your batch size. In commercial terminology, your material and labor costs are both

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Adding Body

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The old thin-bodied stout is definitely one of the more frustrating flaws for this particular style. From what I have observed, this flaw is often associated with stouts that are brewed in


More Mash Space

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Sizing brewing vessels is part of my job with the Paul Mueller Company. When I am sizing mash mixers for brewing applications where the mash is conducted in a stirred and heated vessel and wort separation is conducted in a separate lauter tun I focus on two primary parameters. The first is the range of

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Effects of Wildfire Smoke On Hops

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I know that wine grapes grown near eucalyptus trees can pick up enough eucalyptus oil to impart the aroma to wine. So it is does seem possible in theory that hops grown near wildfires could pick up enough smoke from the air to taint the aroma of the hops. I know that some western areas

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Brewing Lagers for a Beginner

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One of the keys to brewing great lager beers, really, is keeping the fermentation temperature cool. There is no way to sugar-coat the importance of this fact. Lager beers that are fermented warmer than about 58 °F (14.5 °C) often have fruity aromas and sometimes have strong solvent and sulfur notes depending on the yeast

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Boil Timing

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In a very general sense the time required to bring wort to a boil can cause problems when the time is too long. Holding hot wort for extended time periods leads to heat-related chemical changes, generally termed “thermal stress”. But in a more practical sense this is not normally associated with waiting for the kettle

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Re-Pitching Yeast

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Re-pitching of yeast is a normal method used by brewers around the globe. Although the practice is simple, there are a few rules that may make the method less than ideal for the typical homebrewer. The first rule is that the yeast should be harvested shortly after fermentation is complete and used within a short

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424 result(s) found.