Mr. Wizard

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Aerating With Oxygen

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Before jumping into the mechanics of oxygenation, I want to touch on oxygenation versus aeration. Yeast require oxygen to grow since oxygen is a component of healthy cellular membranes. When brewing fermentations are lacking in oxygen, fermentation rate, yeast health, and beer flavor are all affected. The simplest and cheapest way of adding oxygen to

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Increasing Mash Efficiencies

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This question reminds me of a phone call I once received from a winemaker who was considering building a brewery, and the plan was to build a 400-barrel brewhouse (12,400 gallons per batch). This made my ears perk up as I was thinking that the brewery in planning would have an annual capacity of at

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Over-Carbonating My Bottles

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I think your problem is too much sugar added for bottle conditioning. But before I jump into this topic, I want to focus on the state of beer when it is opened. All carbonated beverages are super-saturated with carbon dioxide, meaning that there is more CO2 in solution when the container is opened than permitted

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Brewing With Fruit – How Much?

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Fruit beers run the gamut from being so subtle that the fruitiest part of the beer is the name, all the way to the extreme where the intensity of the fruit approaches a wine and the consumer is surprised that they are drinking beer. I personally like fruit beers that don’t leave me guessing if

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Adding Malt Extract to a Mash

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I love this idea for a number of reasons. The first reason is that many malt extracts seem to be less fermentable than the preference of my palate. If you open a can of malt extract that you know to have a relatively low wort fermentability based on past experience, you can certainly change this

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Transferring to Secondary Fermentation

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Fortunately for homebrewers there are convenient ways to move beer around without ruining your homebrewed suds with the ill effects associated with oxygen. As you mention in your question, one handy method to help reduce oxygen pick-up during racking is by using carbon dioxide as a blanketing gas. While this method is handy, it does

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Sparge Temperatures

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I remember when I first began homebrewing back in 1986 and almost immediately wanted to start brewing all-grain. At that time the information related to homebrewing was a little more difficult to find and my quest for information quickly landed me in the stacks of McKeldin Library on the University of Maryland campus in College

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Wild Yeast Pitch Rates

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Pitching rates for wild yeast and bacteria are really all over the place. Brettanomyces species can be used in place of Saccharomyces species for the primary fermentation of wort into beer. Brettanomyces has become a very popular “wild” yeast in certain brewing circles and imparts an interesting aroma and flavor to a wide range of

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Double filtering homebrew

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The first question that really should be answered is why do brewers filter beer? Some brewers filter beer to make it clear and pretty, some filter beer so that they don’t have to wait weeks for yeast to settle out and want the yeast out for flavor reasons, others use sterile filtration to guard against beer

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What style should I barrel-age?

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One of the most common beer types to age in bourbon barrels is strong stout. The rich, roasted flavors from the stout marry well with oak, vanilla, coconut, and Bourbon notes from the barrel. Additional layers of complexity can be gained by blending fruit-aged stouts to the mix. Other strong beers with a sturdy malt

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Why do some grains need to be malted?

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Grains are malted so that starch contained in the grain endosperm can be released into solution during mashing. The changes that happen during malting are collectively termed modification. And the thing that unites all of these changes is enzymatic production and enzymatic activity. At the end of the malting process, malted grains contain a wide

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Starches in the Mash

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This is really a great question and one that brewers started contemplating shortly after RIMS (recirculating infusion mashing systems) brewing became popular. The two main goals of malt milling are particle size


424 result(s) found.