Mr. Wizard

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Why do some grains need to be malted?

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Grains are malted so that starch contained in the grain endosperm can be released into solution during mashing. The changes that happen during malting are collectively termed modification. And the thing that

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Starches in the Mash

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This is really a great question and one that brewers started contemplating shortly after RIMS (recirculating infusion mashing systems) brewing became popular. The two main goals of malt milling are particle size


Making Kettle Sours

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It took a while for brewers outside of the small sour brewing centers of Belgium and Germany to produce excellent sours because so much of the science and practice of sour beer

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Tracking Sugar Content of a Cider

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Most homemade ciders, unless specially handled, ferment out completely and contain very little residual sugars. This is because apple juice mainly contains fermentable sugars (fructose, sucrose, and glucose), and smaller amounts of

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The Low Down on Water Softeners for Brewing

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I want to recap a few things before suggesting a solution to your water woes. Before your move, you had soft water that worked well for brewing. Now you have water from


The Importance of Brewing Ingredients

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In full disclosure, I work for BSG, a wholly owned subsidiary of Rahr Malting Company in Shakopee, Minnesota, and do bring some bias with the answer that follows. BSG sells malt, hops,


Hydrometer Isn’t Reading Correctly

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The short answer to your question is that this offset is linear, and you can simply subtract 0.004 from the measured density at 60 ˚F (16 °C) to correct for the error

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Setting the Record Straight on Mash pH

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There are some answers that I write where I know that I am stepping into a gray area, and my very brief sidebar about pH jumped square in the middle of the


How do hops affect the final gravity of a beer?

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Hops do not have a significant impact on wort or beer density because the concentration of hop soluble compounds is simply too low to make much of an impact on density. In

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Brew-In-A-Bag Water Chemistry

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The first thing I do when discussing mash thickness is to calculate the liquor-to-grist ratio (water weight divided by grain weight) because this ratio is the basis for discussion related to thickness.

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Converting starches

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One of the most important aspects of measuring anything is to understand what is being measured and how the measuring device works. The iodine test indicates the interaction between iodine and the


How long to secondary ferment

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  Many beers, especially big beers such as imperial stouts, mellow with extended aging in the secondary fermenter. It is usually best to place the secondary in a cool place for extended


367 result(s) found.