Writer: Chris Bible

14 result(s).

Whirlpool Dynamics: The physics of trub removal

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Whirlpooling is a method for separating trub from wort that is widely used by homebrewers and commercial brewers. In commercial breweries, trub-containing wort is pumped tangentially into a tank with a flow


Brewing with Dark Grains

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Dark grains are an important ingredient in brewing many styles of beer. Grains that can be considered to be the “classic dark grains” include chocolate barley, black patent barley and unmalted, roasted

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Understanding Beer Spoilage

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Microorganisms can cause undesirable effects on beer in several ways, including undesirable changes in beer flavor and aroma. Growth of microorganisms on raw materials or in wort can produce changes that alter

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The Chemistry of Beer Flavor

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Beer is comprised of hundreds of different chemical compounds that contribute to the overall flavor and aroma perception of the beer. Different styles of beer have different flavor and aroma characteristics that

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Beer Styles and Statistics

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The concept of beer styles can be viewed in (at least) two different ways. One possible school of thought is that beer styles are merely ways in which people can categorize types

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Theory and Practice of Lautering

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Lautering is the act of separating sweet wort from spent grains. The act of lautering wort is physically very similar to filtration. The flow of wort through a grain bed can be

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Milling — Theory and Practical Consideration

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An all-grain brew day starts with heating the water and milling the grain. Learn the best ways to mill your malt.

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Preventing Diacetyl

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Vicinal diketones (VDKs) are the products of normal beer fermentation within a brewery. The two VDKs that are of primary concern to brewers are 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) and 2,3-pentanedione. Diacetyl in a finished

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Understanding Yeast Metabolism

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Yeast are microscopic, unicellular fungi that are capable of converting various types of sugar into ethanol and other byproducts. Yeast take in sugars and anaerobically (without oxygen) metabolize them to produce energy,

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Fermentation Temperature Control

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Fermentation temperature is a critical brewing variable. Temperature directly influences the metabolic rate of the yeast and the rate of the biochemical reactions associated with fermentation. Fermentation temperature has a significant impact

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Oxygenation of Wort

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Availability of dissolved oxygen to yeast during the initial stage of fermentation is very important. Yeast use oxygen to build cell membrane components that are essential to replication. Unsaturated fatty acids, sterols

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Maillard Reactions

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Beer contains hundreds of different compounds that interact with our human senses to create the appearance, mouthfeel, aromas and flavors that we experience and enjoy. The compounds that are contained within beer

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14 result(s) found.