Writer: Chris Bible

15 result(s).

Crystallization: Forming the ice in your eisbock, baby

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To make a good eisbock (or any other kind of ice beer) it is helpful to have a good understanding of how ice crystals form, and to be able to effectively manage crystal formation within the beer.

Whirlpool Dynamics: The physics of trub removal


Whirlpooling is a method for separating trub from wort that is widely used by homebrewers and commercial brewers. In commercial breweries, trub-containing wort is pumped tangentially into a tank with a flow

Brewing with Dark Grains

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Dark grains are an important ingredient in brewing many styles of beer. Grains that can be considered to be the “classic dark grains” include chocolate barley, black patent barley and unmalted, roasted barley. If one is so minded, it is also probably OK to include in the category of dark grains some of the very

Understanding Beer Spoilage

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Microorganisms can cause undesirable effects on beer in several ways, including undesirable changes in beer flavor and aroma. Growth of microorganisms on raw materials or in wort can produce changes that alter the normal fermentation pathways. Additionally, the growth of contaminants on raw materials or in wort can generate many different microbial metabolites that may

The Chemistry of Beer Flavor

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Beer is comprised of hundreds of different chemical compounds that contribute to the overall flavor and aroma perception of the beer. Different styles of beer have different flavor and aroma characteristics that vary depending upon the many factors associated with the production of the beer. The specific types and amounts of taste and aroma compounds

Beer Styles and Statistics

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The concept of beer styles can be viewed in (at least) two different ways. One possible school of thought is that beer styles are merely ways in which people can categorize types of beer into pigeonholes. The mantra for this camp might be something like, “style boundaries are limiting and oppressive.” An opposing school of

Theory and Practice of Lautering

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Lautering is the act of separating sweet wort from spent grains. The act of lautering wort is physically very similar to filtration. The flow of wort through a grain bed can be thought of physically as a type of filtration (liquid flowing through a “filter bed” of grain). The basic principles of filtration were established

Milling — Theory and Practical Consideration

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An all-grain brew day starts with heating the water and milling the grain. Learn the best ways to mill your malt.

Preventing Diacetyl

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Vicinal diketones (VDKs) are the products of normal beer fermentation within a brewery. The two VDKs that are of primary concern to brewers are 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) and 2,3-pentanedione. Diacetyl in a finished beer creates a slickness on the palate at low concentrations, and has a characteristic flavor that is described as buttery or butterscotch at

Understanding Yeast Metabolism

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Yeast are microscopic, unicellular fungi that are capable of converting various types of sugar into ethanol and other byproducts. Yeast take in sugars and anaerobically (without oxygen) metabolize them to produce energy, additional yeast cells, ethanol, carbon dioxide and other metabolic byproducts: Sugar + Yeast → More Yeast + Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide + Metabolic

Fermentation Temperature Control

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Fermentation temperature is a critical brewing variable. Temperature directly influences the metabolic rate of the yeast and the rate of the biochemical reactions associated with fermentation. Fermentation temperature has a significant impact on the quality of the finished beer, so control of this variable is very important for the brewer. There are numerous ways for

Oxygenation of Wort

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Availability of dissolved oxygen to yeast during the initial stage of fermentation is very important. Yeast use oxygen to build cell membrane components that are essential to replication. Unsaturated fatty acids, sterols (both found in wort) and oxygen are all necessary for yeast to rapidly reproduce during the initial stage of fermentation. Without enough available

15 result(s) found.