Topic: Brewing Science

IBUs: Modern Beers with Old Formulas – Advanced Brewing

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While these approximations are reliable enough for classic hopping techniques and amounts, hopping has evolved to be more varied and aggressive.

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Understanding pH

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The level of pH in your mash, wort, and beer affects processes from enzyme function to hop extraction to yeast vitality. Under­standing pH helps you manipulate pH levels for great-tasting beer. But

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The Science of Hop Glycosides

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The modern IPA is more about the strong hoppy aroma and flavors than it is about bitterness. Michael Tonsmeire breaks down the science behind hop glycosides, one often misunderstood compounds in the complex hop chemistry matrix

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Fast Lager Experiment: Traditional vs. Quick Fermentation

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Many homebrewers avoid making lager styles due to how convoluted and time consuming the process is. In addition to recommendations calling for yeast pitch rates nearly double that needed for ales, step

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Nitrogen and Stout Faucets

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Is there a more mesmerizing sight than beer cascading through the rising bubbles of a nitrogen pour? Understand the science behind nitrogen beers and stout faucets.

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Managing pH with Brewing Water Adjustments

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In this article, we will walk through the key concepts of residual alkalinity and some adjustments you can make on brew day to fine tune your wort pH. All pH readings are

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Testing Dissolved Oxygen

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In brewing, dissolved oxygen (DO) is measured for two reasons. The first is to determine that sufficient oxygen is dissolved in wort to initiate a clean, vigorous fermentation. The second is to


How Water Minerals Change Through Brewing

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It’s been 10 years since I last mimicked the water profiles of Burton-on-Trent for a batch of IPA and of Dublin for a stout. A city’s water profile is one key factor

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Low-Dissolved Oxygen Lagers

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“I don’t know if it is a general problem to comprehend or follow instructions properly but hopefully others can break out of these habits and actually give [low dissolved oxygen brewing] a

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Acid Tolerance of Brewer’s Yeast

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In the last 15 years, American sour beer has grown from experiments tucked away in the sheds or corners of a handful of breweries, to dedicated producers and year-round offerings from the

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Steeping & Soaking Grains

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Steeping is the soaking of specialty malts, grains, and spices in water to extract flavors and aromas that we want to incorporate into our beer. It is, in essence, the making of


Evaluating Hop Oil Content

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There are no “Cascade” or “Saaz” aroma molecules, rather the relative proportions of hop oils drive their aroma contributions. The same four oils constitute 60-90% of the essential oils in every hop variety.

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